Bouldering: Climbing close to the ground w/o a rope.

Sport Climbing: Climbing that includes a rope to protect the climber if he/she/they falls. As sport climbers ascend, they “clip-in” with their rope to bolts that are pre-placed into the rock or wall, while their “belayer” is at the bottom belaying. 

Top Roping: Climbing that includes a rope to protect the climber if he/she/they falls. As top ropers ascend, the rope that they are connected to is passed through a fixed anchor at the top of the rock or wall, while their “belayer” is at the bottom belaying. 

Traditional or “Trad” Climbing: Rock climbing that includes a rope to protect the climber if he/she/they falls. As trad climbers ascend, they place their own protection (“cams,” “nuts,” “hexes,” “tricams”) into the wall, rather than the gear being there for them. https://www.climbing.com/skills/learn-to-climb-trad-the-gear/

Free Solo Climbing: This form of climbing requires no rope, no gear–other than climbing shoes and chalk–and no belayer. Unlike bouldering, heights for free soloing resembles the routes for top roping, sport climbing, and trad climbing, and can reach heights up to 3,000 feet tall.